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Paingala Upanishad Teachings

At first this universe was Sat (Be-ness) only. It is spoken of as Brahman which is ever free, which is changeless, which is Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss, and which is full, permanent, and one only without a second.

Ishwara has Maya under his control, is omniscient, the original cause of creation, preservation, and dissolution, and the seed of this universe.

Ishvara causes the universe which has latent in Him, to manifest itself through the bonds of karma of all creatures like a painted canvas unfurled. Again through the extinction of their karmas, he makes it disappear. In Him alone is latent all the universe , wrapped up like a painted cloth.

Explanation Of The Above Quotes:

The concept mentioned in the first quote 'at first this universe...without a second' is deeply rooted in Hindu philosophy, particularly in Vedanta, where Brahman is considered the ultimate reality, the source and essence of everything. Here's an expansion on this idea:

In the ancient texts of Hinduism, it is described that before the creation of the universe, there existed only Brahman – the supreme, eternal, and infinite reality. Brahman is often referred to as Sat, which signifies pure existence or being. It transcends all limitations of time, space, and causation. Within Brahman lies the essence of all existence, encompassing Truth, Wisdom, and Bliss.

Brahman is beyond any form of change or transformation. It remains immutable and eternal, unaffected by the flux of the material world. This unchanging nature is intrinsic to its essence, establishing Brahman as the substratum upon which the entire cosmos manifests and dissolves.

Furthermore, Brahman is described as indivisible and singular, without any duality or multiplicity. It is the ultimate unity underlying the apparent diversity of the universe. This oneness signifies the interconnectedness of all phenomena, emphasizing the underlying unity that pervades existence.

The realization of Brahman is the highest goal in Hindu spirituality. Through practices such as meditation, self-inquiry, and devotion, individuals seek to transcend the illusion of separateness and recognize their essential identity with Brahman. This realization leads to liberation (moksha) from the cycle of birth and death, as one merges with the eternal essence of Brahman, experiencing boundless peace and fulfillment.

In summary, the concept of Brahman encapsulates the timeless, changeless, and all-encompassing nature of ultimate reality in Hindu philosophy. It serves as the foundational principle upon which the entire universe rests, guiding spiritual seekers on the path to self-realization and liberation. 

The concept mentioned in the second quote 'Ishwara has Maya under...seed of this universe' is also deeply rooted in Hindu philosophy, particularly within the framework of Advaita Vedanta. Let's break down the key points:

Ishwara: In Hinduism, Ishwara refers to the supreme being, the ultimate reality or God. Ishwara is often considered the personal aspect of the divine, with attributes such as omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence.

Maya: Maya is the principle of illusion or cosmic ignorance. It's the power of the divine that veils the true nature of reality, leading individuals to perceive the world as separate from the ultimate reality (Brahman). Maya is the force that creates the illusion of duality, causing individuals to perceive themselves as separate from God and each other.

Omniscience: Ishwara is considered omniscient, meaning all-knowing. This implies that Ishwara has complete knowledge of all things, including the past, present, and future.

Cause of Creation, Preservation, and Dissolution: Ishwara is seen as the original cause or source of the universe. In Hindu cosmology, Ishwara is responsible for the creation, preservation, and dissolution of the universe in cycles known as Yugas. Ishwara creates the universe, sustains it for a certain period, and ultimately withdraws it back into itself.

Seed of the Universe: Ishwara is often described as the seed or the essence of the universe. This suggests that all existence arises from Ishwara and is ultimately interconnected with and dependent on the divine.

In summary, Ishwara, according to Advaita Vedanta, is the supreme being who controls Maya, possesses omniscience, is the original cause of creation, preservation, and dissolution, and serves as the seed of the universe. This concept reflects the foundational beliefs of Hinduism regarding the nature of reality, the divine, and the cosmos.