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Brahmanya Suktas In Atharva Veda

The Brahmanya Suktas in the Atharva Veda are sacred hymns that elucidate the nature of Brahman, the Absolute reality in Hindu philosophy. These hymns serve as a bridge between the philosophical concepts presented in the Rig Veda and those expounded upon in the Upanishads, which are later philosophical texts within the Vedanta tradition.

In these hymns, Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is described using various epithets such as Kala, Skambha, Ucchishta, and Vratya, which are distinctive to the Atharva Veda. Brahman is depicted as the source and sustainer of the entire cosmos, the supreme lord of creation. The universe emanates from Brahman and exists within Brahman. The act of creation is attributed to Brahman's divine will (Atharva Veda 19.53.8).

The sun is symbolically associated with Brahman's power and is referred to as 'Rohita,' the 'Red-One,' highlighting its connection to the Absolute. Brahman is not only the creator but also the immanent reality pervading all existence. Furthermore, Brahman is equated with the concept of Atman, the individual self or soul, emphasizing the underlying unity of all existence.

The term 'Vratya,' mentioned in these hymns, should not be confused with its usage in later texts such as the dharmashastras, where it denotes people who are considered outside the Vedic fold due to lack of adherence to Vedic rites and sacraments. In the context of the Brahmanya Suktas, 'Vratya' represents Brahman itself, signifying the Absolute reality that transcends all limitations and classifications.

Overall, the Brahmanya Suktas in the Atharva Veda provide profound insights into the nature of Brahman, emphasizing its role as the ultimate source and substratum of the cosmos, as well as its identification with the individual self, thereby elucidating the fundamental principles of Hindu metaphysics and spirituality.