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Three Types Of Mukuta – Crown – In Hindu Iconography - Makuta

The three types of Mukuta (makuta), or crowns, described in Hindu iconography are significant symbols that adorn various deities and figures, each carrying its own unique symbolism and aesthetic:

Kirita Mukuta:

  • Kirita Mukuta is a crown typically worn by male deities such as Vishnu and emperors. Sometimes Devi images too have them.
  • It is characterized by its cylindrical or conical shape, often measuring between 16 to 24 angulas in height (an angula is a traditional unit of measurement in Hindu iconography).
  • This type of crown may feature intricate details such as a diadem, lotus motifs, or be adorned with gemstones.
  • Kirita Makuta symbolizes royalty, authority, and divine status, accentuating the regal presence of the wearer.

Karanda Mukuta:

  • Karanda Mukuta is shaped like a pot or bulb and is typically worn by major feminine deities and kings.
  • The lower part of this crown may be embellished with precious stones, enhancing its opulence and grandeur.
  • This type of crown represents fertility, abundance, and prosperity, reflecting the nurturing and sovereign aspects associated with feminine deities and rulers.

Jata Mukuta:

  • Jata Mukuta features matted hair styled into a crown-like arrangement.
  • It is commonly depicted in images of Shiva, his attendants, and sages, as well as in certain forms of the Devi.
  • Jata Mukuta symbolizes asceticism, renunciation, and transcendence, reflecting the spiritual and meditative aspects of the wearer.

Additionally, in depictions of yakshas and nagas, a turban-like headgear known as Shirastraka is provided, underscoring cultural and regional variations in headwear across different mythological beings.

These various forms of Mukuta not only serve as decorative elements but also carry profound symbolic meanings, enriching the visual language of Hindu iconography and reflecting the diverse attributes and roles of the deities and figures they adorn.