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Mithya Jnana In Advaita Vedanta

In Advaita Vedanta, the concept of "mithya" and "mithya jnana" holds significant philosophical implications. In this tradition, Brahman is considered the ultimate reality, the one absolute truth without any second (tathya; eka; advitiya). According to Advaita Vedanta, everything else that appears to exist, including the world and all beings within it, is regarded as "mithya," which translates to unreal or false.

"Mithya jnana" refers to false knowledge, specifically the erroneous belief that the world and the individual self (body-mind complex) are ultimately real and separate from Brahman. This false understanding arises due to "avidya" or "ajnana," which denotes ignorance or nescience. At a cosmic level, this ignorance is known as "maya." Maya is considered to be beginningless (anadi), but it can be dispelled through "vidya" or "jnana," which represent true knowledge or realization of the identity between the individual self (atman) and Brahman.

In essence, mithya jnana arises from the fundamental misconception caused by avidya, which veils the true nature of reality and perpetuates the illusion of multiplicity and separateness. The path to liberation (moksha) in Advaita Vedanta involves transcending this false knowledge through the attainment of true knowledge (vidya) and realizing the non-dual nature of Brahman.