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Ayuta Siddha - Existing Without Conjunction In Nyaya Vaisheshika

The Nyaya-Vaisheshika philosophy, one of the classical schools of Indian philosophy, provides a nuanced understanding of the nature of relationships through the concepts of samyoga and samavaya.

Samyoga (Conjunction): Samyoga is a type of relationship that is characterized by conjunction, implying a temporary coming together of two entities. It is often compared to the meeting of two objects, such as two balls moving from opposite directions. This type of relationship is termed 'yuta siddha' because it comes into existence (siddha) when the two entities are united (yuta). The union is considered temporary, and the relationship ceases to exist when the conjunction ends.

Samavaya (Inherence): In contrast to samyoga, samavaya represents a more profound and permanent form of relationship, where one entity inheres in another. This relationship is considered 'ayuta siddha,' emphasizing its permanence even in the absence of immediate conjunction. Examples of samavaya relationships include the relationship between the whole and its parts (e.g., cloth and threads), a quality or action inhering in a substance (e.g., redness in a rose, motion in a moving ball), or a universal inhering in individual entities (e.g., manhood in men).

Whole and Parts: In the case of the whole and its parts, samavaya is evident as the entirety of an object inheres in its constituent elements. For instance, a cloth inherently relates to its threads.

Quality or Action and Substance: Samavaya is also observed when qualities or actions inherently exist in substances. Examples include the redness in a rose or the motion in a moving ball.

Universal and Individuals: The philosophy acknowledges samavaya in the relationship between universals and individual entities, such as the universal concept of manhood inhering in individual men.

In summary, while samyoga signifies a temporary conjunction between entities, samavaya denotes a permanent inherence where the relationship persists even in the absence of immediate conjunction. The Nyaya-Vaisheshika philosophy provides a structured and intricate framework for understanding the dynamics of these relationships within the broader context of metaphysics and ontology.