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Apeksha Buddhi

Apeksha buddhi is a perception of duality. It is a concept propounded by logicians to explain the perception duality in objects. When any two objects of the same kind, say pots, are perceived, we get the knowledge that there are two objects. Now, where exactly does this duality or two-ness exist? Is it in either of the pots or in both the pots? Certainly, it does not exist in either of the pots. Each pot is cognized as one pot, and so duality cannot exist in either of them individually. Duality cannot exist in both the pots because a number not existing in either cannot be cognized in their sum.

Logicians solved this problem by accepting the concept of apeksha buddhi. Apeksha buddhi is the result of two bits of knowledge, as ‘this is one’ and ‘this is one’ regarding both the pots. Based on these two bits of knowledge, another knowledge as ‘there are two pots’ arises. This knowledge is known as apeksha buddhi. This duality or ‘two-ness’ inheres equally in both the pots in a special connection called vyasajya vritti or the fact of pervading both the pots. Unlike other bits of knowledge that are destroyed at the third moment of birth, this apeksha buddhi has a life of three moments. In case of plural numbers or a combination of more than two objects, such as an army, a forest, etc., another number other than three, etc., (like many) is accepted by the author by Nyaya Kandali, Udayanacharya, who, however, says that the triad itself could be treated as many.