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Anuyogi And Pratiyogi In Logic In Hinduism

Anuyogi and pratiyogi are correlated substratum and counter-correlative in Hindu logic. Pratiyogita is a subjective relationship between the ideas of two entities, which correspond with positive or negative facts of the external world. The pratiyogi (counter-correlate) is that positive object, as also its idea, the prior knowledge of which is necessary for comprehending the relationship of pratiyogita.

Pratiyogita can be of two kinds - 

  1. Viruddhatva (the relationship of opposition)
  2. Vrittivedyatva (that of co-existence)

The pratiyogita of opposition exists between the idea of positively existing objects and abhava (the idea of its negation or non-existence). For example, pratiyogita subsists between a pot and its non-existence in a particular locus, such as the ground. The pot and its non-existence are mutually opposite since the two cannot be in the same place simultaneously. Also, the prior knowledge of the pratiyogi or counter-correlate object is necessary for appreciating, firstly, its abhava (non-existence) in a given locus, i.e. the anuyogi, and secondly, the relationship of pratiyogita subsisting between the pratiyogi and its non-existence. For example, without the prior knowledge of the pot, one cannot appreciate the non-existence of the pot either, as also the relationship between the pot and its non-existence in a given locus. The locus of the non-existence of the pratiyogi is called the anuyogi. For instance, the empty ground, characterized by the non-existence of the pot, becomes the anuyogi, corresponding to the pratiyogita of the pot and its non-existence.

The positive variety of pratiyogita, vrittivedyatva, is the relationship subsisting between two positively existing entities, one of which is the pratiyogi – the similarity of certain attributes, which are cognized as being located in the other positive entity, called the anuyogi. For example, in the case of a ‘moon-like face’, pratiyogita stands for sadrishya sambandha (the relationship of similarity) between that face and the moon. The moon is the pratiyogi and that face is the anuyogi.