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Coordination – Samanvaya In Hindu Philosophy

In Hindu Philosophy, Samanvaya (loosely meaning coordination) is a communion or putting one or more things together in mutual adjustment or coordination, appropriate to a situation. The word has three types of meaning, such as lakshana, abhidha and vyanjana. Whatever be the height and depth of imagination, clarity of meaning and proper arrangement of words are desirable as a mark of samanvaya in poetry.

Rasa (relish) and bhava (emotion) are to be in contextual homogeneity when we say that kavya (poetry) is having the quality of samanvaya.

Grammatically, this word means arrangement in a natural or chronological order. The relationship between two chapters of a book which come in succession is referred to as samanvaya.

In the first chapter of Brahmasutra, on the definitions of Brahman, there is a sutra – Tattu samanvayat (1/1/4). Although Brahman is not cognized by any means of proof other than the Shastras, the Shastras describe him as saguna (with attributes) and nirguna (without attributes). A samanvaya corresponding to him is to be established inasmuch as he does not import any activity or cease from activity. The fact that the knowledge texts alone is the source of knowledge relating to Brahman, samanvaya results in constituting the true purport of the knowledge texts.

All Upanishadic passages, such as the following and others, have to be interpreted to mean the very same thing – from whom all these atmas are born (Taittiriya Upanishad III.I.I); atma (sat) alone, my dear child, was in the beginning, one only without any second (Chandogya Upanishad VI 2.1).

Moreover, those collections of words are capable of denoting such well-established ideas, made out according to the natural process of deriving the meanings of words. The true purport of those passages is the Brahman who is the cause of creation, sustenance and re-absorption of all the worlds, who is hostile to all that is evil, and who is an ocean of innumerable noble qualities and has the nature of unsurpassed bliss; and it cannot be that they deal with things other than Brahman. Again the operation of a means of true knowledge (proof) is not determined by utility. Utility indeed is determined by the proof. Further, that (the scriptural passage) which is free from all concern with inducing activity or cessation from activity cannot be said to be devoid of utility; because it is seen to be related to one of the objects of human pursuit.