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Tadatmya In Hindu Philosophy

Tadatmya, in Hindu philosophy, is the similarity between two concepts and objects. Tadatmya means a relation of essential identity and refers to the principle of uniformity of two concepts. It is a relation of genus (class of individuals) and species (individuals with common characteristics). Tadutpatti refers to cause and effect theory. But there is no cause and effect relation in tadatmya. Inference is drawn as an evidence of assertion. Nyaya theory relies upon empirical induction where as Buddhist doctrine relied on the identity of essence.

According to Nyaya theory, there were four pramans or means of valid knowledge, pratyaksha (perception), anumana (inference), upamana (inference by analogy or comparison), and sabda (verbal), pronouncement of a reliable authority, such as Vedas. The testimony Advaita Vedanta School added are arthapatti (intuition or presumption) and anupalabdhi (non-perception). The six categories over-lapped somewhat, but Buddhists generally included all forms of knowledge under the first two categories, thus establishing an identity of eluvia.

According to Prasastapada, anumana is knowledge related to linga (reason or valid reason). It is connected with the object, wherever it might exist. Nyaya system is in agreement with this concept of valid reason called hetu. Kashyapa Kanada proposed tadatmya between cause and effect. The validity of inference depends on the validity of vyapti (concomitance). Vyapti is in respect of sign and the signate. There is concurrence between linga and lignin (the possessor or linga) which proposes a valid anumeya.

Vatsyayana believes in the appearance of linga. It can lead to inference. Nyayamanjari refers to parisesanumana, a king of anumana. This tells about consciousness possessed the self as a matter of necessity. The variant forms seek for the concomitance of hetu or vyapti niyama. Sometimes effect can trace back the cause. In some cases, inference is possible in spite of identity of essence or the relation of cause and effect. One is inferred from the other to explain the concept of relation between idea of class and characteristics. The later developments in Buddhism evolved a way of panchakarani to determine the connection between cause and effect.