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Guna Melana Concept In Hindu Marriage

Guna Melana is when the elements (guna) in the horoscopes of the potential groom and bride are matched to assess their compatibility for the nuptial union, the whole process is known as Guna Melana. It is an important horoscope related matching process in Hindu marriage.

The total of these elements (parameters) is thirty six in number, which are matched in eight broad categories – varna, vashya, tara, yoni, graha maitri, ganamaitri, bhakua and nadi.

Varna – All humans are divided into four classes – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. They represent the basic attributes respectively – sattva (satvika), rajas, rajas-tamas and tamas and the twelve rashis (zodiac signs) in the following way – Pisces, Scorpio and Cancer – Brahmin (watery rigus); Aries, Leo, Sagittarius – kshatriya (fiery rigus), Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn – vaishya (earthly rigus) and Gemini, Libra and Aquarius – Shudra (airy rigus).

Vashya – On the basis of the janma rashi, all beings are divided into five vashya (varieties). The rigus are divided under the following five classes – Chatushpada, Dvipada, srpa, kuta and jalacara. In this categorization half of a sign may belong to one category, while the other half to a different category. For example, the first half of Sagittarius belongs to dvipada category and the other half to chatushpada category.

Graha Maitri – In this, the lords of the rashi and the lords of the ascendant of the potential groom and bride are matched, taking into consideration the natural friendship, indifferences and enmity of these lords. For example, the sun is friendly to the moon, Jupiter and Mars; indifferent towards Mercury but hostile towards Venus and Saturn. Maximum results match when the lordship of the groom or the bride’s rashis is common.

Ganamaitri – All the nakshatras (asterisms) are divided into three ganas (group),viz, -deva, manusya, rakshasa. The fifth asterism of the protective groom and bride are matched in the following way – deva maushya match has better compatibility than rakshas manushya match, whereas deva-rakshasa are each other’s known enemies.

Tara – While determining the compatibility between the groom and the bride tenth asterism is directly tallied, if the value of the asterism of the bride and the groom differ only by three to seven, then it is taken as auspicious; otherwise, the result is deemed inauspicious.

Yoni – All the nakshatras are divided into fourteen categories (apart from the 27 known nakshatras; ‘Abhijita’ is also added to the list to make the total 28. These fourteen categories are called asva, gaja, mesha, sanka, svana, musika, mriga, vyaghra, vamana, nakula and simha. Their compatibility is judged by pragmatic rules. For example, cat and mouse are just not compatible so aren’t serpent and mongoose.

Bhakula – In this match the potential groom and bridegroom rigae are tallied. Taking Aries as number one, Taurus as number two etc., if the groom and bride’s rigus are 4th and 10th from each other, it is believed to be an ideal match. Then their position should be 3rd and 11th and so on. The worst is their trusted position being 6th or 8th from each other.

Nadi – The 27 asterisms are divided into three groups, each containing 9 asterisms. These three groups are called ‘Adya nadi’, ‘Madhya nadi’ and ‘Artya nadi.’ The nadis of the potential groom and bride should not be the same. “Adya Malhya” is better than “Madhya-Autye” and so on.

The South Indian schools add two more concepts, rajju and mahendra to the above eight categories. The “Mangalika Dosa” (Mars in or aspecting fully the 7th house) is also given importance by the traditional school.