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Paratantra In Hinduism – Complete Submission

Paratantra in Hinduism is the obedience or complete submission to a master. Implicit in this attitude is total obedience. These are the characteristics of the jivatma (individual self). This is illustrated in the Ramayana by Bharata and Lakshmana.

Lord Rama fulfilled the promise given by his father to one of his wives, Kaikeyi (pitrvakyaparipalana). Thereby he was observing his samanyadharma (duty). Lakshmana accompanied Rama to the forest Dandaka (dandakaranya), declaring that he would do everything for Rama at all times by being brother and disciple. This is sesatva, a distinctive kind of behavior.

Bharata was one step ahead by implicitly obeying Rama’s request to return to Nandigrama for obtaining the Paduka (sandals) of Sri Rama. A return to Ayodhya was categorically rejected by Lakshmana. Similarly, Bharata’s paratantrya (submission) is illustrated by his acceptance of consecration to become yuvarajabhisheka (heir apparent) only on rejection by Lakshmana. This is an example of Bharata’s visheshataradharma.

Shatrughna, the youngest brother, goes one step further by illustrating Bhagavata Paratantrya (dependence on a devotee) which his one step better than Bhagavad Paratantrya (dependence on God) illustrated by Bharata. Bhagavata paratantrya of Shatrughna is recognized as the visheshatmadharma.

Shatrughna had conquered two enemies, namely, the five senses (being the internal enemies) and Rama saundarya (beauty of Rama) considered as bayasatru (external enemy). Shatrughna had won this also by not visiting Rama without Bharata.