Skip to main content


Marriage Hymn In Rig Veda – Earliest Evidence Of Marriage In Human History

The earliest expression of human thoughts about marriage is found in the Rig Veda – the oldest scripture in Hindu religion. These hymns throw light on the position of Hindu women in ancient times. In early Hinduism teachings, the union of the wife and the husband, both in body and mind, is repeatedly emphasized.

The subject matter of this hymn is the marriage of Surya, the daughter of the Sun God in Hinduism.

The father of the bride is approached by friend of the bridegroom with the proposal of marriage, and it is accepted.

The well-adorned bride comes to the marriage hall along with her companions.
The hand of bride is placed on bridegrooms hands in front of the sacred fire, and both the bride and the groom pray for togetherness and lasting relationship.

The groom thanks God for having given him the bride.

Later he also offers a prayer to Pushana, requesting him to render the bride auspicious and cooperative, so that they share the pleasures of life together.

After the rituals of marriage, the bride leaves her father’s home for her husband’s place. Prayers are addressed to Vishwavasu, the gandharvas, who is the protector of virgins, seeking his protection for the bride in her husband’s home.

Indra, the king of demigod, is also invoked to bless her with fortune and sons.

It is stressed that the bride is the master of her husband’s household.

After the departure of the guests, the bride performs a sacred ritual in her husband’s home. She is blessed with a wish that she would live in her husband’s home for a long time, enjoying the company of sons and grandsons and make the new home her own.

The husband prayers that they should be blessed by Prajapati with many children and that Aryaman (guardian of compacts and marriage) should protect them.

The bride is expected to bring prosperity to the house, and be truly the master of the household, looking after her husband’s parents as well as her other in-laws.

Indra, the king of Devas, is requested to grant her ten sons.

The concluding prayer is offered jointly by the bridegroom and the bride, who prayer to the universal God and the waters to unite them in love. Prayers are also offered to Matarisvan Dhatr and Deshtri to inseparably bind them together.

Bibliography
  • The call of the Vedas (1988) A C Bose – Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mumbai
  • Hindu Samskaras (1957) R Pandey MLBD New Delhi
  • Encyclopedia of Hinduism Volume VII page 53 – 64 IHRF