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Chemistry during the Vedic Age

Concepts of chemistry were found during the Vedic age. The remarkable expositions of Nyaya Sutra of Gautama and Vaiseshika Darshana of Kanda explain about the use of chemistry during the Vedic period.

Metallurgy was highly developed during the Vedic age. The people of the era had the knowledge of casting and forging of metals. Utensils, vessels, armors, tools and ornaments were made from metals and alloys.

High quality swords were made during the period and this suggests the people of the Vedic age had the knowledge of iron extraction from ores, smelting and other metallurgical process.

Gold, silver, copper, lead, tin and alloys such as bronze and copper-tin are mentioned in the Vedas.
Vedic Hindus had the knowledge of tanning of hides and making using of natural vegetable coloring material for dyeing.

Rig Veda also mentions about the technique of fermenting – especially of soma juice and barely.
Curd and other items from milk were produced using fermentation.

Manufacture of decorated earthenware, porcelain, plaster, glass beads, minerals, metals and alloys.

Kala or Time as God in the Vedas