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What is Tithi in Hindu Calendar? – How is Thithi Calculated in Panchangam?

A tithi in a Hindu calendar is a lunar day. Amavasya (No moon or new moon) happens when the longitudes of the sun and the moon are equal. A Thithi is calculated when the moon moves 12 degrees eastwards from the sun. This is the first Tithi and is known as Pratipada Thithi during Shukla Paksha or waxing phase of moon. When the moon moves 180 degrees it is Purnima or full moon and when the moon moves 360 degrees it is again Amavasya.

There are 15 Tithis in a fortnight.

The Length of a Tithi

Since the motions of the sun and the moon are always varying in speed, the length of a Tithi constantly alters. Some times a tithi can be as long as 26 hours and as less as 21 hours 34 minutes and 24 seconds. This means the time a tithi begins varies with the general time followed in a country.

Same Tithi on two days and Two Tithis on one day

Sometimes a tithi might begin and end on the same day. Thus there will be two tithis on a day. For example – you might see a Tritiya and Chaturthi on the same day

Sometimes a tithi might overlap into the next day and then there will be two same tithis on two consecutive days. For example – it will be Tritiya on Sunday and Monday.

Days with two Beginning or End points of tithis and no beginning or end points of tithis are considered inauspicious.

The thirty Tithis in a month are:

  1. Pratipada, Padya or Parthami, the first day after Amavasi
  2. Dwitiya
  3. Tritiya
  4. Chaturthi
  5. Panchami
  6. Shasti
  7. Saptami
  8. Ashtami
  9. Navami
  10. Dasami
  11. Ekadashi
  12. Dwadashi
  13. Trayodashi
  14. Chaturdashi
  15. Purnima or full moon
  16. Partipada
  17. Dvitiya
  18. Trithiya
  19. Chaturti
  20. Panchami
  21. Sashti
  22. Saptami
  23. Ashtami
  24. Navami
  25. Dasami
  26. Ekadashi
  27. Dwadashi
  28. Triodashi
  29. Chaturdashi
  30. Amavasya or No Moon or New Moon