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What is Adhika Masa? or Extra Month in Hindu Calendar in 2023 - Adhik Maas or Mahina 2023 in Hindu Lunar Calendar

The concept of Adhika Masa is unique to the traditional Hindu lunar calendars. In 2023 Hindu calendar, there is an Adhika Masam or Adhik Masa or an extra month. This Adhika Masa is from July 18, 2023 to August 16, 2023 as per North Indian Calendar. In Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, the Adika Masa is also from July 18, 2023 to August 16, 2023. This extra month is known as Adhik Shravan Maas or Adhik Shravan Mahina. The Adhika Masa is dedicated to Sri Krishna.

So in 2023 there are thirteen months in Hindu Lunar calendar. Apart from the normal 12 months, there is an an Adhik Shravana Masa.

It must be noted here that there is no Adhika Masam in the calendars followed in Assam, Bengal, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu as it is based on Hindu Solar Calendar.

Why There is an Adhika Masa?

The Hindu calendar is a lunar calendar and is based on the cycles of the Moon. A lunar month is around 29.5 days long. Now, a solar month, that is the usual calendar, is 30 to 31 days.

The lunar year consists of 354 solar days and solar year consists of 365 days. So, as years pass by each lunar month starts earlier to the corresponding solar month. There is a difference of 11 days between the lunar and solar year. In every two or three solar years the difference between the two calendars becomes a full month or around 29 days. To compensate and get the two calendars similar an extra month is added.

Vasishta Siddhanta, a treatise of Sage Vasishta, says that the Adhika Masa occurs after every 32 months, 16 days and 8 Ghadis. A Ghadi is 24 minutes.

Now, in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat the lunar month begins and ends with the new moon or no moon (amavasya). In North India, the lunar month begins and ends with full moon (purnima).

How is Adhika Masa Calculated?

The sun changes its sign or rashi (like Mesha, Vrishabha) every month in Hindu astrology system. The day it enters a Rashi is called as its ingress into a Rashi. A lunar month in which there is no sun ingress into a Rashi is considered an Adhika Masa. Adhika Masa occurs once in 32 solar months and 16 days.

Yet another method or most widely used in North India is as follows:
Solar year in Hindu calendar is 365 days and 6 hours approximately.
Lunar year in Hindu calendar is 354 days.
There is a difference of 11 days between the Solar and the Lunar Year. 
Once in three years this difference adds up to a month. Then there is an extra month or Adhik Masa.

For an average devotee, the Adhika Masa means some change in the temple celebrations in the States following the lunar calendar. For example, due to the Adhika Masam, there will be two Brahmotsavams in Tirupati this year. And the Adhika Masa is dedicated to Lord Krishna.

Different Names of Adhika Masa

  • Mala Maas
  • Adhik Mahina
  • Purushottam Maas
  • Kala Mahina

When is Next Adhika Masa?

Next Adhika Masa is in 2026. It is the Adhik Jyeshta month from May 17, 2026 to June 15, 2026.