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Sadhya In Hindu Philosophy

Sadhya in Hindu philosophy is a goal that is achievable. It is usually meant to denote the goal. The process by which it can be achieved, i.e., the path is called sadhana. Every sadhya needs a separate sadhana. If passing an examination is sadhya reading is the sadhana. The effort to achieve the sadhya is called sadhana (perseverance).

According to Naya Shastra (Indian Logic), the problem or thing to be inferentially established is sadhya. For example, to draw a conclusion we have three elements, namely, paksha, sadhya and hetu. These are usually rendered in English as minor premise, major premise and middle or the cause, respectively.

In Nyaya, the term paksha, which corresponds to minor premise, stands for the base with reference to which something has to be inferred or inferentially predicted.

The term sadhya, which corresponds to the major premise, stands for the thing that is sought to be inferred or inferentially predicted with reference to paksha.

The term hetu or sadhana, which corresponds to the middle term of Western logic, stands for the reason or ground which is invariably concomitant with what is sought to be inferred and whose knowledge leads to inference. For example, take the statement; there is fire on the mountain because there is smoke. In this statement, fire on the mountain is to be inferred from the cause of the presence of smoke. Here, mountain is paksha, the minor term; fire sadhya, the major term; and smoke is hetu, the cause.

A Primer of Indian Logic (1998) Kuppuswamy Shastry - Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute Chennai
Agamas and South Indian Vaishnavism V Varadachari M Rangacharya Memorial Trust Chennai
Encyclopedia of Hinduism Volume IX page 26 - IHRF