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A Short Essay on Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy - Shad Darshanas in Indian Philosophy

There are six systems of Hindu philosophy which are known as the Shad Darshanas in Indian philosophy. The six systems of Hindu philosophy accept the Vedas as their main source of valid knowledge. These systems are known as Darshana in Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism). In Sanskrit, darshana means a ‘point of view” or “a method of looking.” This is a short essay on the six systems.

Six systems of Hindu Philosophy are scientific – western scholars and pseudo secularists, who controlled the Indian universities after independence, spread several lies about Hindu philosophies. But truth can never be kept out for a long period of time. World has understood their lies and the six systems of Hindu philosophy are widely studied and followed throughout the world.

The founders of these systems were great rishis. As per Sanatana Dharma, the rishis were a class of highly evolved beings. Hindus owe everything to these rishis, for they are the ones who gave us our heritage, our culture and our way of life.

The word rishi is derived from the Sanskrit root “to see”. It is believed that they received the Vedic hymns directly from the mouth of God.

Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy

  1. Nyaya Philosophy
  2. Vaisheshika School
  3. Samkhya Philosophy
  4. Yoga
  5. Purva Mimamsa
  6. Uttara Mimamsa
Nyaya Philosophy was found by Gautama Rishi. It deals with logic and reasoning. All logic in Sanatana Dharma is derived from this school of philosophy.

Rishi Kannada is the founder f the Vaisheshika School, which is the first ancient school in the world which dealt with atomism. He decreed that the world is composed of atoms long before the atomic theory was even thought of. He talks of anus (atoms) and paramanus (molecules). These two schools are closely connected and Vaisheshika makes use of Nyaya logic.

Kapila Rishi is the founder of Sankhya Philosophy, which postulates reality as being dual – prakriti and purusha or nature and spirit. He postulates that the world is made up of five great basic elements. To these were added many others making up a total of 24 cosmic principles. The basic of the Samkhya system were later used by both Yoga and Vedanta.

Patanjali Rishi is the founder of Yoga and he was the greatest psychologist of the world. He taught the various methods of mind control like meditation and breath control, which is still used by all those who wish to lead a healthy and peaceful life. Samkhya and Yoga schools are connected.

Purva Mimamsa was founded by Rishi Jaimini. It stresses the efficacy of the portion of the Vedas which advocates yajnas and other rituals.

Uttara Mimamsa is popularly known as Vedanta, which accents the end of the Vedas, which contain the path of wisdom. It is popularly known as the Upanishads.

There are three schools of Vedanta each having its own founder. Adi Shankara is the founder of Advaita Vedanta, which is the most famous of all the schools. He says that Reality is One alone and is called Brahman.

Ramanuja is the founder f the Visishtadvaita School which is known as qualified monism.
Madhvacharya is the founder of the school known as Dvaita or dualism.