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Utensils used in Hindu Rituals – Tools in Vedic Literature

Vedic literature talks about various utensils used during the period. Most of these tools have been classified and can be found in the Taittiriya Samhita of the Yajur Veda. The utensils used in Hindu rituals of that period were known as Yajnayudhas – literal translation means the implements used in Yajna. The Samhita classifies the Yajnayudhas into implements, furniture, tools, vessels and utensils.

Following are the Vessels and Utensils Mentioned in Taittiriya Samhita of the Yajur Veda

Drona Kalasha

Sphya – wooden knife – made of khadira wood (acacia catechu) – it is used for cutting darbha grass and for demarcating where rituals are to be performed. The wooden knife was also used for stirring boiled oblations.


Kapala – Earthern platters – to make preparation using rice and wheat flour. Such baked or cooked items were stored in special containers known as ida.

Sruk and Sruvas - Ladle – To Pour Oblation into Fire a large ladle made of Flacourta sapida wood.

Winnow – For chafing and sifting grains. It was made of grass or cane.

Krishnajina – Black antelope hide – used as mat to sit while performing the yajna.

Various wooden containers with handle to measure rice, wheat and other yajna items.

Mortar made of wood from a sacred tree to pound soma.



Musala – pestle – for pounding soma and de-husking grains.

Drasad or Grava – a large stone slab – to crush or grind the soma plant.

Upala – small stone – place on the drasad to crush or grind.

Other containers used were
Kalash - Pitcher
Sannayapatras – to store milk and yogurt
Proksani – to store soma juice or consecrated and holy water
Drona Kalasha – Large vessel for storing huge quantity items.
Laghu patra – small wooden bowls for various purposes
Sthali – bowls
Camasa – cups

If you are interested in reading more with pictures of the vedic implements then you can get them in pdf format here in the IGNCA Website - There are nearly 50 Vedic utensils with pictures and brief explanation.

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